William Elliot Griffis, Corea the Hermit Nation, Kessinger, 2004.

ウィリアム・グリフィス (William Elliot Griffis, 1843~1928) は米国の牧師・東洋学者で、1870〜74(明治3〜7)年に日本に滞在し、福井と東京で西洋式教育制度の導入に尽力した。帰国後の1876年に出版した『皇国(The Mikado's Empire)』がベストセラーになり、東洋学者としての名声を確立した。1882年に初版が出た『隠者の国・朝鮮』も非常によく売れ、1911年までに9版を重ねた。

This is a good specimen of Corean varnish-work carried into history. The rough facts are smoothed over by that well-applied native lacquer, which is said to resemble gold to the eyes. The official gloss has been smeared over more modern events with equal success, and even defeat is turned into golden victory. (pp. 150-151)

The vocabulary of torture is sufficiently copious to stamp Ch?-sen as still a semi-civilized nation. The inventory of the court and prison comprises iron chains, bamboos for beating the back, a paddle-shaped implement for inflicting blows upon the buttocks, switches for whipping the calves till the flesh is ravelled, ropes for sawing the flesh and bodily organs, manacles, stocks, and boards to strike against the knees and skin-bones. (p. 234)

Corean architecture is in a very primitive condition. The castles, fortifications, temples, monasteries and public buildings cannot approach in magnificence those of Japan or China. The country, though boasting hoary antiquity, has few ruins in stone. The dwellings are tiled or thatched houses, almost invariably one story high. In the smaller towns there are not arranged in regular streets, but scattered here hand there. Even in the cities and capital the streets are narrow and tortuous. (p. 262)


Corea has no samurai. She lacks what Japan has always had - a cultured body of men, superbly trained in both mind and body, the soldier and scholar in one, who held to a high ideal of loyalty, patriotism, and sacrifice for country. (p. 450)

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