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目標と目的の違い(いろいろな目標)

  • 15-05-15 08:28
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goals
a photo by Fabio Bertolotti

Alex Moss先生はESLの先生(ネイティブではない人に英語を教える先生)ですからゆっくりと丁寧に、わかりやすく解説されています。まずは、彼が使う語彙を確認し、TOEIC対策にもなる英国の発音リスニング教材として動画を見ましょう。

ビデオはここ → Ray7

Vocabulary

聞く前に単語やフレーズの使い方を確認、練習しておきましょう。理解度が増すはずです。

intention【名詞】〈…しようとする〉意図,意向
A: What's your intention? = What are you trying to do? = What do you want to do?
(何がしたいの?)
B: My intention is to improve safety. = I'm trying to improve safety. = I want to improve safety.
(安全性の改善です)

what you want to achieve  あなたが成し遂げたいこと
このwhatは関係代名詞で、the thing which「~すること」という意味になる。
what you want to see あなたが見たいもの
what I have 持っているもの
(代)名詞なので主語や目的語や補語として使える。
What I really want to do is to understand you. 〔主語〕
(私が本当にしたいのはあなたを理解することです。)
Do you want to know what I'm thinking about? 〔目的語〕
(私が考えていることを知りたい?)
This is what I want to achieve. 〔補語〕
(これが私が成し遂げたいことです。)
This is what I'm trying to achieve. 〔補語〕 = This is the thing I'm trying to achieve.
(これが私が成し遂げようとがんばっていることです。)

「がんばっているところ」は I'm trying. で言い表せます。「あきらめないでいる」ニュアンスを伝えたいなら I'm hanging in there. と言うと良いでしょう。I'm doing my best. も良い表現です。

either A or B は「AかBか」という意味の相関接続詞ですが、orはもともと等位接続詞なので文法的に力関係が等しいものをつなぎます。名詞 or 名詞、動詞 or 動詞など。Moss先生は前置詞句と前置詞句をつなげています。
Either at a specific moment or in the long-term future.
(特定の時あるいは長い目で見た未来の時)

My aim is to make a lot of money.(わたしの狙いはお金をたくさん稼ぐことです。)
このように to不定詞は動詞(ここでは make)を名詞にして補語にすることができます。
先ほど出てきた My intention is to improve safety.もそうです。

 Aim is the direction, whereas the goal is the thing you want to hit.
(狙いというのは方向性で、ゴールは当てたい物です。)
この whereas は「一方は~で他方は~」というふうに2つのものを比較するときに使います。
while も同じように使えます。
Low-quality products are cheaper, whereas high-quality ones tend to last longer.
(品質の悪い製品は値段が安いですが、高品質のものはより長持ちする傾向があります。)

ambition【名詞】ねらっているもの;野心、大望;成功への強い衝動;大事にしている願望
object【名詞】(知覚できる)物、物体;対象
Your goal is the object of your ambition.
(あなたの目標というのはあなたが狙っている対象物です。)

similar【形容詞】似ている
A target and a goal are very similar. (ターゲットとゴールはとてもよく似ています。)

a series of 一連の
An objective can normally be a series of goals or targets.
(オブジェクティヴは通常一連のゴールやターデットです。)

my objective is to pass the proficiency exam
(私のオブジェクティブは実力試験に合格することです。)

metaphorical【形容詞】比喩的な
spiritual【形容詞】霊的な、精神的な
philosophical【形容詞】哲学的な

Moss先生が話す英語は皆さんが復習しやすいようにすべて書き起こしましたが、初めはそれを見ないで雰囲気からでも、目標(”Aim” “Goal” “Target” “Objective”) と 目的(Purpose)の違いを感じ取って見ましょう。

Intro – Hi, there, students. Aim, Goal, Target, Objective, and Purpose. Okay, all of these words talk about your intention. What you want to achieve. The thing you're trying to achieve. Either at a specific moment or in the long-term future. Okay, so, ...

Aim – If you say, “My aim is to make a lot of money.” When you aim, you point at a target. So, you have a gun, and you aim a gun. So, it's the direction that you are pointing in. Okay? So, the direction that you are pointing in,  if you go in this direction, you're.., you hope to hit the target. Okay? So, to point to direct something, a camera or a weapon, at a target, at an objective. Okay? So, you aim to do something. I'm going in this direction because I want to do this. Okay? So, that's your aim. Yeah? To..., you have the intention of achieving something. And you're going in this direction because you want to get it.

Goal – Now, if we talk about goal, all of you know the goal in soccer. So, if you put the ball in the goal, you score. So, maybe, he aimed and kicked the ball at the goal, but he missed. Okay? So, he tried to targeted1 in the right direction. So, his aim was to score. He aimed at the goal. So, aim is the direction, whereas the goal is the thing you want to hit. Okay? It's the intention. Okay? So, your, your goal is the object of your ambition. Yeah? It's the reason that you're trying..., one of the reasons that you're trying to do something. I think goals generally are more short-term.

Target – Okay, now, let's look at target. I think target, a target and a goal are very similar. You want to score a goal. You want to hit the target. Okay? So, your target is the objective that your efforts are directed towards. Yeah? So, very often you have sales targets or sales goals. So, these are individual things that you want to achieve. My target is to do this. Okay? My target is to sale ten of these before the end of the day. Yeah? My goal is to sale ten of these towards the day, before the end of the day. This is what you're aiming at. So, you aim at the goal, and you aim at the target. Okay?

Objective – An objective is fairly similar again. Okay? Your objective is something that you're aiming at. It's a goal you're trying to achieve. However, I think an objective can normally be a series of goals or targets. So, I met all of my goals, and like that, I reached the objective. Okay? So, the objective, the final objective, I, I feel that an objective is something that's further away.  So, I'm aiming to speak perfect English. My first goal is to understand the verbs. My next target is to be able to use prepositions well. But my final objective is to speak good English and pass the proficiency exam. Okay.

Purpose – So, what about purpose? Okay, a purpose talks about the reason for doing something. Okay? So, it's my purpose to do this, .. what is your purpose here? What is the reason for your being here? Okay, my purpose is to try to do this. It explains the reason why. So, my objective is to pass the proficiency exam. And the purpose of this is to get a good job in the future. I also think that purpose is more metaphorical. It's something more, perhaps a bit more spiritual or philosophical. Yeah? What is your purpose in life? A good question. I don't really know. Maybe to live and be happy. So, a purpose, this is the reason why.

Summary – So, let me go over these again. You aim, you point in a direction. So, my aim, I'm pointing in this direction to try and reach a goal. I'm aiming in this direction to try and, ah..., meet my target. To hit the target.  And I have lots of goals and lots of targets that I'm aiming at. And then finally I hope to achieve my objective, the end of the road. And my purpose in this is to have a better reputation. And to have more people that think I'm very good at my job. Okay, so, that's the  purpose.

Personal Example - Okay, so, my aim in this video is to show you the difference between these five words. My goal is to help you with your English. It's my target as well. My goal and my target can also be to get you to understand and to be able to use words correctly. The objective is that you watch many more videos and spend much more time learning English and improve overall your English. And my purpose is to help people. My purpose is something to help you and get more students and to get more people watching my channel. So, the purpse is the longest term. The aim, you're starting out. The goal is something you hit. The target is something you hit. The objective is more long-term. And the purpose is more philosophical.

Outro - Okay? So, I hope this has helped you a little bit. And you will have it more clearly in your minds when to use each of these words. If you enjoyed the video, give it a rating, subscribe to my channel. And I'll see you soon. Bye for now.

Educational Postcard:  "Students need purpose"
a photo by Ken Whytock

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